Open Neural Tube Defect (Types, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment)

Neural tube defect (NTDs) are the birth defects that occur due to faulty development of brain and spinal cord. These defects occur when the brain and spinal cord are not completely covered with membranes and bones, leaving the brain and spinal cord open [1]. NTDs occur in the 3rd week of pregnancy when some special type of cells on the dorsal aspect of the fetus begin to form the neural tube. The NTDs can be classified into two types, namely open NTDs and closed NTDs. Open NTDs are the most common type of these defects.

open neural tube defects, closed neural tube defects, open spina bifida, closed spina bifida

Source:  www. hastane.deu.edu.tr

Incidence

NTDs are one of the most common congenital birth abnormalities, occurring in almost one in 1,000 live births in the United States. An NTD occurs very early in the developmental period since the neural tube is formed 28 days after conception. When the neural tube does not close adequately, a NTD develops. NTDs develop in the fetus before most women know they are even pregnant [2].

Types/examples of the Open Neural Tube Defect

As mentioned earlier, there are two types of NTDs, that is, open, which are more common and closed. A defect is said to be an open NTD if brain or spinal cord is exposed at birth through an opening in skull or vertebral column. Examples of open NTDs are given below [3]:

Anencephaly

The term anencephaly means “without head”. It is a type of open NTD’s that develop when the cranial end of the neural tube fails to close completely, usually during the 23rd and 26th days of pregnancy resulting in the lack of a major part of the brain and cranium. Infants born with this defect do not have the main parts of the forebrain and are usually blind, deaf and unconscious.  Absence of forebrain part ensures that the baby will never gain consciousness [3,4]. Infants having this defect are either stillborn or usually die within a few hours or days after birth.

Encephaloceles

Encephalocele is another open neural type of defect which is characterized by herniation of a part of brain through the skull that is sac-like and covered with meninges. Encephaloceles can be classified into various types depending upon their location. Encephaloceles are often evident and diagnosed immediately. In some cases small encephaloceles remain undiagnosed [3,4].

Hydranecephaly

Hydranecephaly is an open type of NTD characterized by the absence of cerebral hemispheres; instead the skull is filled with sacs of cerebrospinal fluid [3].

Iniencephaly

Iniencephaly is a rare type of open NTD that causes an extreme bending of the head to the spine. Diagnosis of this abnormality can usually be made on antenatal ultrasonography; however, immediately after birth “the bent head with face looking superior” will indicate the diagnosis. Usually the neck is absent. The skin of the face connects directly to the chest and the scalp connects to the upper back. The infant will usually not survive more than a few hours [3,4].

Spina bifida

Spina bifida is an NTD characterized by the incomplete closure of bone around the spinal cord resulting in a defect in the spinal cord. It can be further divided into two classes; spina bifida cystica and spina bifida occulta [3].

Spina Bifida Cystica

Spina bifida cystica can be further divided into two types, namely meningocele and myelomeningocele. Meningocele means herniation of the meninges (but not the spinal cord) through the defect in the spinal canal. Myelomeningocele means the protrusion of the meninges as well as the spinal cord through the opening [3,4].

Spina Bifida Occulta

By definition, spina bifida occulta refers to hidden split spine. In this NTD the spinous process and the neural arch appear abnormal on an X-rays, and are generally harmless. In most of the cases the spinal cord and spinal nerves are not involved [3,4].

Causes and risk factors of the Open Neural Tube Defects

The exact cause of NTDs is still under debate but there are certain environmental and genetic factors which are thought to be important in causation of NTDs. These are (5):

  • Folic acid deficiency in the pregnant lady
  • Use of certain drugs like anti-epileptics, methotrexate,  etc
  • Intake of mytoxins in contaminated corn meal
  • Exposure or intake of arsenic
  • Exposure to hyperthermia and radiation
  • Previous history of NTDs
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes (5)

Diagnosis 

NTDs in the antenatal period can be diagnosed with the following tests [6]:

  • Ultrasonography
  • Quadruple screening
  • Serum alpha fetoprotein levels
  • Amniocentesis

Diagnosis after birth can be made by:

  • History and examination
  • CT-head
  • MRI-brain
  • X-rays spine (6).

Treatment 

There is no treatment available for anencephaly as the babies usually do not survive more than a few hours. There is certain role for aggressive surgical management in cases of spina bifida, meningoceles and mild myelomeningoceles. The outcome of surgical repair often depends on the amount of brain tissue involved in the encephalocele. The aim of treatment for NTDs is to allow the patient to achieve the maximum level of function [5,7].

Conclusion

Open neural tube defects are of various types. Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women and some genetic factors are involved in the causation of NTDs. Prognosis of NTDs depend upon the type of defect and adequate surgical treatment

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REFRENCES

  1. Copp AJ, Stanier P, Greene ND. Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies. Lancet Neurol 2013;12(8):799-810.
  2. Persad VL, Hof M, Dube JM, Zimmer P. Incidence of open neural tube defects in Nova Scotia after folic acid fortification. CMAJ 2002; 167(3): 241–5.
  3. Imbruglia L, Cacciatore A, Carrara S. Abnormal skull findings in neural tube defects. J Prenat Med 2009 Jul-Sep; 3(3): 44–7.
  4. Saboval L, Horn F, Drdulova T, et al. [Clinical condition of patients with neural tube defects]. Rozhl Chir 2010;89(8):471-7.
  5. Manning SM, Jennings R, Madsen JR.Pathophysiology, prevention, and potential treatment of neural tube defects. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2000;6(1):6-14.
  6. Main MD, Mennuti MT. Neural tube defects: issues in prenatal diagnosis and counselling.Obstet Gynecol 1986;67(1):1-16.
  7. Phadke S, Agarwal M. Neural tube defects: A need for population-based prevention program. Indian J Hum Genet 2012; 18(2): 145-7.

Spina Bifida in West Virginia: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for West Virginia are as follows: About 2.91 babies out of 10,000 births are affected with this disease. The data was collected during the period of 2000-2004. The number of women who are due to give birth has not been tracked. Our research has shown that the number of people with this medical problem residing in the state of West Virginia is approximately 2,200.

There are two SB clinics present in West Virginia, the Children with Special Health Care Needs and West Virginia University Medical Center. Both the SB clinics are located at Morgantown and provide assistance to patients affected with this health issue. The SB Association of the Mid-Atlantic Region (SBAMAR) is responsible for providing resources for people affected with SB.

Spina Bifida Clinics in West Virginia

Children with Special Health Care Needs

Physician Office Center

Medical Center Drive

Morgantown, WV 2650l

Phone: 304-598-4830

 

West Virginia University Medical Center

Myelo Clinic

Medical Center Drive

Morgantown, WV 26506

Phone: 304-598-4830

 

Spina Bifida Charity in West Virginia

SB Association of the Mid-Atlantic Region (SBAMAR)

Sara Struwe

4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW

Suite 250

Washington, DC 20007

800-621-3141

Web site: http://www.sbamar.org/

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in West Virginia

Easter Seals West Virginia

1305 National Road

Wheeling, WV 26003-5780

Contact: Lorie Untch

Voice: (304) 242-1390

Fax: (304) 243-5880

TTY: (304) 242-1390

Toll Free: (800) 677-1390

Email: luntch@wv.easterseals.com

Web site: www.wv.easterseals.com

 

Sports & Activities in West Virginia

River Cities Therapy and Recreation Center, Inc. (RCTRC, Inc.)

(formerly River Cities Therapeutic Riding Center, Inc.)

304-743-5267 or 304-634-1845

2216 Newman’s Branch Road

Milton, WV 25541

Web site: http://rctrc.org/

 

David Begg

10 Snowshoe Drive

Snowshoe, WV 26209

Phone: (304) 572-6708

Email: dbegg@snowshoemountain.com

Web site: http://cawvsports.org/

Spina Bifida in Mississippi: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Mississippi are as follows: In this state the number of babies affected with this medical condition is unknown. Our research has not yielded the numbers of women here who are due to give birth with babies that may or may not be likely be at with this disability.

The Mississippi State Department of Health which is located at Jackson provides help and services to patients who are affected with this medical problem. The SB Association of Mississippi that is also situated in Jackson is responsible for providing assistance to people affected with SB.

The Camp Dream Street provides extra-curricular activities for children in the state of Mississippi.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Mississippi

Mississippi State Department of Health

Blake Clinic for Children

Jackson Medical Mall, Suite 454

350 Woodrow Wilson Drive

Jackson, MS 39213

Phone: 601-987-3965

866-HLTHY4U

Web site: http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/_static/41,0,163.html

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Mississippi

SB Association of Mississippi,

5 Old River,

Ste 101,

Jackson, MS 39202-3449

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Mississippi

Camp Dream Street

3863 Morrison Rd

Utica, MS 39175

Contact: Scott Levy

Voice: (601) 885 6042

Email: info@dreamstreetms.org

Web site: www.dreamstreetms.org

Spina Bifida in Delaware: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Delaware are as follows: According to the Delaware Health Statistics Center, one baby out of fifty-six babies who are born here that have a birth direct suffers from SB. However in this state, the numbers of women who are due to give birth to babies who are most likely going to be affected with this medical condition have not been tracked.

The state of Delaware has a SB clinic which is located in Wilmington that provides help and assistance to patients who are affected with this health issue. The SB Association of Delaware Valley is responsible for providing medical assistance to people affected with SB. The Easter Seals Delaware and Maryland’s Eastern Shore, Camp Fairlee Manor provides extra-curricular activities for children.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Delaware

AI Dupont Hospital for Children

Nemours Children’s Clinic

Spina Dysfunction Program (pediatric only)

1600 Rockland Rd. P.O. Box 269

Wilmington, DE 19803

(302) 651-5993

Web site: www.nemours.org/clinic/de/wil.html

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Delaware

SB Association of Delaware Valley

2950 Potshop Rd, Norristown, PA 19403

Phone: (610) 584-553

Email: info@sbadv.org

Web site: www.sbadv.org/

 

Spina Bifida Support Groups in Delaware

SB Association of Delaware

PO Box 807

Wilmington, Delaware, 19899

(302) 478-4805

Web site: http://www.angelfire.com/de/sbaofde/sbadhome.doc.html

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Delaware

Easter Seals Delaware and Maryland’s Eastern Shore, Camp Fairlee Manor

22242 Bayshore Rd

Chestertown, MD 21620

Contact: Steve Nkurlu

Voice: (410778 0566)

Fax: (302) 324-4441

TTY: (302) 324-4442

Email: fairlee@esdel.org

Web site: www.de.easterseals.com/fairlee

 

Sports & Activities in Delaware

Bob Carpenter Sport Center (Little Bob)* at the University of Delaware

26 N. College Ave., Newark DE 19713

302 286-1399

Email: info@yesucanusa.com

Web site: http://yesucanusa.com/

 

 

Spina Bifida in Wyoming: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Wyoming are as follows: In this state the number of babies affected with this disease is not known. The state has around 167,000 women who are due to give birth to babies and some are likely going to be affected with this medical condition. People of Hispanic origin make up  7.7 percent of the population which comes to 41,000 (Hispanic women are at higher risk of SB than non-Hispanic races).

The state of Wyoming does not have a SB clinic to treat patients affected with this medical problem. Since Wyoming does not have a SB association chapter, unlike other states, patients affected with SB can receive treatment from the SBA of Colorado (SBACO). Unfortunately there are currently no support groups, clinics or camps in this state.

Spina Bifida Charity in Wyoming

Lavon Birney

Executive Director

Spina Bifida Association of Colorado (SBACO)

(720) 937-8009

Email: lbirney@spinabifidaco.org

Web site: www.coloradospinabifida.org

 

Sports & Activities in Wyoming

Teton Adaptive Sports

PO Box 2894

Jackson, WY 83001

307 699 3554

Email: info@adaptivesports.com

Web site: http://tetonadaptivesports.com/

 

Spina Bifida in Wisconsin: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Wisconsin are as follows: About 2.60 babies out of 10,000 births are born with this medical problem. The data was collected during the years 2001-2005. The data shows an increase in the number of babies born with this disability when compared to  previous data.

Around 1,463 people who have SB are residing in the state. Our research has shown that 1.7 million women are due to give birth and at some risk of delivering babies affected with this medical condition. The number of people of Hispanic origin in the state is 5 percent of the population which equals 281,000 (Hispanic women are at higher risk of SB than non-Hispanic races).

There are three SB clinics in the state. They can be found at LaCrosse, Milwaukee, and Madison. The clinic at Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin is the registry point for patients affected with SB. The SB Association of Wisconsin is responsible for providing help and support services in the state.

Spina Bifida Wisconsin

Spina Bifida Wisconsin, Ltd

830 N 109th St Wauwatosa, WI 53226  414-607-9061

www.sbwis.org  email:sbwis@sbwis.org

Spina Bifida Clinics in Wisconsin

Gunderson Lutheran

SB Clinic

1900 South Avenue

LaCrosse, WI 54601

Phone: 608-775-2169

Web site: http://www.gundluth.org/

 

University of Wisconsin

Children’s Hospital

Pediatric SB Clinic

1675 Highland Avenue

Madison, WI  53792

Web site: http://www.uwhealth.org/

 

Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin

SB Program

9000 W. Wisconsin Ave. C350

Milwaukee, WI 53226

Phone: 414-266-2690

Web site: www.chw.org

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Wisconsin

830 North 109th Street, Suite 6

Wauwatosa, WI 53226

Phone: 414.607.9061

Fax: 414.607.9602

Email: sbawi@sbawi.org

Web site: http://www.sbawi.org/

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Wisconsin

Easter Seals Southeast Wisconsin, Adult Recreation Programs

5151 S. 6th St.

Milwaukee, WI 53221

Contact: Bob Glowacki

Voice: (414) 571-5566

Fax: (414) 571-5568:

Email: agency@eastersealswise.com

Web site: www.eastersealskindcaresewi.com

 

Easter Seals Southeast Wisconsin, Adult Recreation Programs, Wil-O-Way Grant

207 Lake Drive

South Milwaukee, WI 53172

Contact: Amber Mavroff

Voice: (414) 571-5566

Fax: (414) 571-5568

Email: agency@eastersealswise.com 

 

Easter Seals Southeast Wisconsin, Adventure Camp –Kenosha

7101 53rd Street

Kenosha, WI 53144

Contact: Amber Mavroff

Voice: (414) 571-5566

Fax: (414) 571-5568

Email: agency@eastersealswise.com 

Web site: www.eastersealskindcaresewi.com

 

Easter Seals Wisconsin, Inc.(Administration Office)

101 Nob Hill Rd., Ste 301

Madison, WI 53713

Contact:   Aurora Holder, Program Assistant

Voice: (608) 277-8288

or: 1-800-422-2324 x 124

Fax: (608) 277-8333

TTY: (608) 277-8031

Email: info@wi.easterseals.com

Web site: www.EasterSealsWisconsin.com 

 

Easter Seals Camp Wawbeek

1450 STH 13

Wisconsin Dells, WI 53965

Contact: Carissa Miller

Voice: (608) 254 8319

Fax: (608) 277-8333

TTY: (608) 277-8031

Toll Free: (800) 422-2324

Email: info@wi.easterseals.com
Web site: http://camp.eastersealswisconsin 

 

Easter Seals Elks Respite Camp

1550 Waubeek Rd

Wisconsin Dells, WI 53965

Contact:  Tony Bown

Voice: 608-254-2502

Fax: (608) 277-8333

TTY: (608) 277-8031

Toll Free: (800) 422-2324

Email: info@wi.easterseals.com

 

Sports & Activities in Wisconsin

AgrAbility of Wisconsin

Biological Systems Engineering

460 Henry Mall

Madison, WI 53706

(608)262-9336 Voice

(608)262-1228 Fax

For TTY users: 1-800-947-3529

Email: aaw@mailplus.wisc.edu

Web site: http://bse.wisc.edu/agrability/

 

SouthEastern Wisconsin Adaptive Ski Program (SEWASP)

Web site: http://www.sewasp.org/

Spina Bifida in Virginia: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Virginia are as follows: In this state 3.95 babies are born with this medical condition out of 10,000 births. The data was collected during the period of 2001-2005. That shows an increase in the number of babies who have been born with this health issue when compared to the previous data.

Around 3,069 people are residing in Virginia with this medical problem. An estimated 1.7 million women are in the family way and are at some risk of delivering babies with SB. The number of people of Hispanic origin is 7 percent of the population or approximately 500,000 people (Hispanic women are more susceptible than other non-Hispanic races to SB).

There are five SB clinics located in Virginia. They are located in New Kent, Richmond, Norfolk, Charlottesville, and Fairfax. Two SB Associations provide support services and resources in the state. They are the SB Association of the Mid-Atlantic Region and the SB Association of the Roanoke Valley.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Virginia

University of Virginia

Kluge Children’s Rehabilitation Center

2270 Ivy Road

Charlottesville, VA 22908

Phone: 800-627-8596

Web site: http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu 

 

Linda Baringer

INOVA

8505 Arlington Blvd., Suite 100

Fairfax, VA

703-970-2604

 

Cumberland Hospital for Children and Adults

9407 Cumberland Rd.

New Kent, VA 23124

Phone: 800-368-3472

 

Children’s Hospital of The King’s Daughters

601 Children’s Lane

Norfolk, VA 23507

Phone: 757-668-7136

Web site: http://www.chkd.org/

 

Children’s Hospital

SB Program

2924 Brook Road

Richmond, Virginia 23220

804-228-5818

Toll Free 800-443-0893

Web site: www.childrenshosp-richmond.org

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Virginia

SBA of the Mid-Atlantic Region

Sara Struwe-Executive Director

4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW Suite 250

Washington, DC 20007

Phone: 202-618-4747

Email: sbamar@sbamar.org

Web site: http://www.sbamar.org

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Virginia

Easter Seals UCP North Carolina & Virginia Inc.

201 E. Main Street

Salem, VA 24153

Contact: Tristan Robertson

Voice: (540) 777-7325

Fax: (540) 777-2194

Toll Free: (800) 365-1656

Email: info@va.easterseals.com 

Email: camp@eastersealsucp.com
Web site: www.va.eastersealsucp.com

 

Camp Easter Seals UCP

900 Camp Easter Seals Road

New Castle, VA 24127

Contact: Alex Barge

Voice: (540) 864-5750

Fax: (540) 864-6797

Email: alex.barge@easterseals.com 

Web site: www.campeastersealsucp.com

 

Easter Seals Virginia

8003 Franklin Farms Drive, Suite 100

Richmond, VA 23229

Contact: Sarah Hutchinson

Voice: (804) 287-1007

Fax: (804) 287-1008

Toll Free: (866) 874-4153

Email: sarah.hutchinson@va.eastersealsucp.com
Web site: http://nc.eastersealsucp.com

 

Sports & Activities in Virginia

Wintergreen Adaptive Sports

P.O. Box 578

Lovingston,  VA – 22949

434.325.2007

Email: info@skiwas.org

Web site: http://wintergreenadaptivesports.org

 

Virginia Beach Blvd

Virginia Beach,

VA 23451 (757) 422-0367

Web site: http://www.liferollson.org/

 

 

 

Spina Bifida in Vermont: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Vermont are as follows: In this state, the number of babies who are affected with this medical condition have not been tracked. Around 206,000 women are of child bearing age and some are at high risk of delivering babies who are affected with this disease. The number of people who are residing in the state of Vermont of Hispanic origin is one percent of the population (or 6000 people).  As a note, women of Hispanic origin are at higher risk than non-Hispanic races of SB.

There is one SB clinic in the state of Vermont located at Burlington which provides help and services to patients who are affected with SB. The SB Association of Greater New England is responsible for providing support services in the state.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Vermont

Children With Special Health Needs

Myelomeningocele Clinic

108 Cherry St.

Burlington, VT 05401

Phone: 800-222-8422; 802-479-4231

Web site: http://healthvermont.gov/family/cshn/cshn.aspx

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Vermont

SBA of Greater New England (Formerly SBA of Massachusetts)

219 East Main St

Suite 100B

Milford, MA 01757

Phone: 508-482-5300

Toll Free: 888-479-1900

Fax: 508-482-5301

Email: edugan@SBAGreaterNE.org

Web site: www.SBAGreaterNE.org

 

Sports & Activities in Vermont

Northeast Disabled Athletic Association

82 Killarney Drive

Burlington, VT 05408

Web site: www.disabledathletics.org/

 

Vermont Adaptive Ski & Sports

P.O. Box 139

Killington, VT 05751

Web site: www.vermontadaptive.org/

 

Bart J Ruggiere Adaptive Sports Center

P.O. Box 2232

Manchester, VT 05255

(802) 824-5522 ext. 430

Summer phone: (802) 447-1054

Web site: www.bartcenter.com

 

Spina Bifida in Utah: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Utah are as follows: In this state 4.22 babies are born with this medical condition out of 10,000 births. The data was collected during the years 2001-2005. This shows a decrease in the number of cases when compared to the previous data collected. Around 1,155 people living in Utah are affected with this medical disability.

An estimated 0.8 million women are due to give birth in Utah and some are at risk of delivering babies affected with this health issue. People of Hispanic origin make up 12 percent of the population which comes to 328,370 (Hispanic women are more susceptible than other non-Hispanic races to SB).

There are two SB clinics in Utah and both are located at Salt Lake City.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Utah

Primary Children’s Medical Center

SB Clinic

100 N. Medical Drive

Salt Lake City, UT 84113

Phone: 801-588-3382

Web site: http://www.ihc.com/

 

Shriner’s Hospital for Children

Intermountain Hospital

Fairfax Ave. at Virginia St.

Salt Lake City, UT 84103

Phone: 801-536-3621

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Utah

SB Association of the Intermountain Region

Christi Rauth

National Walk Manager

Phone: 310-359-9611

Email: crauth@sbaa.org

Web site: www.sbaofir.org

Walk-N-Roll: www.walknrollnv.org

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Utah

Splore (no summer camps-daytime outdoor activities)

774 East 3300 South Suite 105

Salt Lake City, UT 84106

phone: 801.484.4128

937.716.7966

Email: info@splore.org

Web site: www.splore.org

 

 

Sports & Activities in Utah

Common Ground Outdoor Adventures

335 North 100 East

Logan, UT 84321

Web site: www.cgadventures.org

 

Discover NAC

Post Office Box 682799

Park City, Utah 84068

Voice/TDD: 435.649.3991

Fax: 435.658.3992

Email: info@DiscoverNAC.org
Web site: http://www.discovernac.org/

 

 

Spina Bifida in Texas: Clinics, Support Groups, Camps, Charity

The Spina Bifida statistics for Texas are as follows: About 3.58 babies out of 10,000 babies are affected with this disease. The data was taken during the years of 2000-2004. The data shows a decrease in the number of SB cases when compared to the previous data collected. Around 8,709 people in the state have been diagnosed with this medical condition.

An estimated 7.5 million women are of child bearing age and some will have babies affected with this health issue. Around 36 percent of the population which equals 8.7 million are of Hispanic origin (Hispanic women are more susceptible than other non-Hispanic races to SB).

The state of Texas has twelve SB clinics. In Houston and San Antonio there are two SB clinics each. The remaining eight SB clinics can be found in Dallas, Brownville, Austin, El Paso, Lackland, Galveston, Lubbock, and Fort Worth.

There are two SB Association that offer support services in the state. They are the SBA of North Texas, in Garland and the SB Association of the Houston Gulf Coast, in Houston.

Spina Bifida Clinics in Texas

Dell Children’s Medical Center of Central Texas

4900 Mueller Blvd.,

Specialty Care Center

Austin, TX  78723

Phone: 512-324-9999

Web site: http://www.childrenshospital.com/

 

Moody Clinic

1901 E. 22nd St.

Brownsville, TX 78521

Phone: 956-542-8504

Web site: http://www.moodyclinic.org/

 

Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children

SB Clinic

2222 Welborn St.

Dallas, TX 75219

Phone: 214-559-7857

Web site: www.tsrhc.org

 

Texas Tech

Orthopaedic Clinic

4801 Alberta

El Paso, TX 79924

Phone: 915-545-6760

 

Cook Children’s Medical Center

Department of Neurology

901 Seventh Avenue, Suite 120

Fort Worth, TX 76104

Phone: 817-810-2500

Web site: www.cookchildrens.org

 

University of Texas Medical Branch

Pediatric Special Services

301 University Blvd.

Galveston, TX 77555

Phone: 409-772-2331

 

Shriner’s Hospital for Children

Myleo Program

6977 Main St.

Houston, TX 77030

Phone: 713-797-1616

 

Texas Children’s Hospital

SB Clinic

6701 Fannin Street

Houston, TX 77030

Phone: 832-822-4308

Web site: http://www.texaschildrenshospital.org/

 

Wilford Hall Medical Ctr.

Department of Urology

2200 Berquiest Dr., Suite 1

Lackland AFB, TX 78236-5300

Phone:210-292-7531

 

Covenant Children’s Hospital

Pediatric Specialty Clinic

3606 21st Street Suite 103

Lubbock, TX 79424

Toll Free: 877-924-4550

Web site: http://www.covenanthealth.org

 

Christus Santa Rosa Center for Children and Families

SB Evaluation Center

333 N. Santa Rosa

San Antonio, TX 78207

Phone: 210-704-2963

 

Methodist Children’s Hospital

Pediatric Specialty Clinics

4499 Medical Drive Sublevel 1 @ Methodist Plaza

San Antonio, TX 78229

Phone: 800-297-1021

Web site: www.mhshealth.com

 

Spina Bifida Charity in Texas

SBA of North Texas

Robin R. Lee – Executive Director

705 W Avenue B, Suite 204

Garland, TX 75040

Phone: 972-238-8755

Email: rlee@spinabifidant.org

Web site: www.spinabifidant.org

 

Spina Bifida Support Groups in Texas

SB Association of Houston Gulf Coast

440 Benmar Suite 3052

Houston, TX 77060

281-447-2707

Web site: http://www.sbahgc.org/

 

SB Association of North Texas

705 W. Avenue B., Suite 409, Garland, Texas 75040

Phone: 972-238-8755

Email: information@spinabifidant.org

Web site: http://spinabifidant.org/

 

SB Texas

1550 NE Loop 410, Suite 224

San Antonio, TX 78209

Web site: http://www.sbatx.org/

 

Spina Bifida Camps for Children in Texas

Easter Seals Central Texas

1611 Headway Circle, Building 2

Austin, TX 78754

Contact: Shireen Connor

Voice: (512) 615-6859

Fax: (512) 476-1638

Email: sconnor@eastersealstx.com

Web site: www.centraltx.easterseals.com

 

Sports & Activities in Texas

They Will Surf Again (TWSA)

Port Aransas

Email: TWSA@LifeRollsOn.org

Web site: http://www.liferollson.org/site/c.9rJLK3MLJfLWH/b.7882153/k.673B/They_Will_Surf_Again.htm